$txt['colorize_color'] = 'Color';$txt['HPlocation'] = 'Project Honey Pot (all regions)'; // MOD Quick PM $txt['quick_pm'] = 'Quick PM'; $txt['change_quick_pm'] = 'Change to Quick PM'; $txt['change_quick_reply'] = 'Change to Quick Reply'; $txt['send_message'] = 'Send message'; $txt['quick_pm_desc'] = 'With Quick-PM you can write a personal message when viewing a topic without loading a new page. You can still use bulletin board code and smileys as you would in a normal personal message.'; $txt['display_quick_pm'] = 'Enable Quick PM (requires enable Quick Reply)'; // MOD Auto Merge Double Post $txt['permissionname_doublePost'] = 'Allow to do Double Post'; $txt['permissionhelp_doublePost'] = 'By Enabling this will allow them to double post.'; $txt['AutoMergePost_div'] = 'Add text when merging the post'; $txt['AutoMergePost_div_sub'] = 'You can use BBC and $date variable'; $txt['AutoMergePost_time'] = 'Time after which it will allow the bump the topic'; $txt['AutoMergePost_time_sub'] = 'Time 0 to disable the MOD and 9999 for never allow bump'; // Aeva Media extra strings $txt['aeva_gallery'] = isset($txt['aeva_gallery']) ? $txt['aeva_gallery'] : 'Media'; $txt['aeva_home'] = 'Home'; $txt['aeva_unseen'] = 'Unseen'; $txt['aeva_profile_sum'] = 'Summary'; $txt['aeva_view_items'] = 'View items'; $txt['aeva_view_coms'] = 'View comments'; $txt['aeva_view_votes'] = 'View votes'; $txt['aeva_gotolink'] = 'Details'; $txt['aeva_zoom'] = 'Zoom'; $txt['permissiongroup_aeva'] = 'Aeva Media'; $txt['permissiongroup_simple_aeva'] = 'Aeva Media'; $txt['permissionname_aeva_access'] = 'Access Gallery'; $txt['permissionname_aeva_moderate'] = 'Moderate Gallery'; $txt['permissionname_aeva_manage'] = 'Administrate Gallery'; $txt['permissionname_aeva_access_unseen'] = 'Access unseen area'; $txt['permissionname_aeva_search'] = 'Search in Gallery'; $txt['permissionname_aeva_add_user_album'] = 'Add Albums'; $txt['permissionname_aeva_add_playlists'] = 'Add User Playlists'; $txt['permissionname_aeva_auto_approve_albums'] = 'Auto-approve Albums'; $txt['permissionname_aeva_moderate_own_albums'] = 'Moderate own Albums'; $txt['permissionname_aeva_viewprofile'] = 'View anyone\'s Gallery profile'; $txt['cannot_aeva_viewprofile'] = 'You cannot view Gallery profiles'; // End Aeva Media strings $txt['display_facebook_like'] = 'Display Facebook Like icon?'; $txt['display_facebook_like_desc'] = 'Enabling this will Display the Facebook Like Icon within posts.'; $txt['display_facebook_like_all'] = 'Display Facebook Like icon in all posts?'; $txt['display_facebook_like_all_desc'] = 'Enabling this will Display the Facebook Like Icon within all posts. Note Display Facebook Like Icon has to be enabled'; Capital thinks Big
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Tác giả Chủ đề: Capital thinks Big  (Đọc 2240 lần)
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« vào: 29/02/2008, 19:32 »

By Bich Ngoc (VIR)

Vietnam has approved a master plan, drawn up by the Hanoi People’s Committee and the Japanese International Cooperation Agency, to develop Hanoi to 2020.

Like in many Asian capitals, a rapidly growing population has been increasingly putting Hanoi’s infrastructure under pressure.
The Comprehensive Urban Development Programme (Haidep) was conducted between December 2004 and March 2007 to upgrade the city’s urban master plan to 2020 and set a clear direction for future growth.


The Haidep study covered 15 provinces in northern Vietnam, some 36,252 square kilometres, which is home to 23.4 million people.

Hanoi Mayor Nguyen The Thao said the management of future growth of the population and urban areas was one of the challenges facing the city leadership.

If this process is not property managed, sprawl, disorderly land use will continue to adversely affect Hanoi’s development.

According to city authorities, it is estimated that the population in Hanoi’s integrated urban areas by 2020 would be 5.1 million with Hanoi proper accounting for 4.5 million.

Transportation infrastructure and services are the foundation of urban development which affects economic development, land use, living conditions, environment, provision of utilities and services and property values. Experts from Haidep suggested that transportation development in Hanoi must be undertaken at both the regional and city levels.

Regional transportation must be developed in a way that enhances the region’s competitive edge and attracts investment, strengthens inter provincial integration and facilitates balanced development.

Strategic corridor development is proposed which covers the completion of Ring Road N4, ring rail, extension of the Urban Mass Rapid Transit (Umrt) toward satellite cities and urban areas, development of high-quality expressway linking Hanoi and Haiphong, Quang Ninh and completion of the regional ring road.

While congestion worsens each passing day, effective measures such as accelerated road development, improved traffic management and enhanced public awareness are not enough to keep up with increasing demand.

Without immediate and effective implementation of needed measures in a comprehensive manner, the future situation may spiral out of control as it has in other large urban areas in Asia, Haidep experts warned.

Haidep proposed an urban transportation system which consists of the urban road network (eight radial and four ring roads), Umrt systems and a core system. Hanoi’s road network will increase from 624 kilometres to 1,143km in length by 2020.

Since road construction in Hanoi has become increasingly complex due to difficulties in obtaining land, it is necessary to develop alternative schemes to address road development issues more comprehensively as can be done through the land readjustment scheme adopted by many successful cities in Japan.

The Umrt systems will be diversified into different areas such as metro, elevated rail and bus rapid transit. The first core system of the city will link the east and south of the city with the city centre using the existing Vietnam Railway lines and the north and southwest of the city with the city centre.

The secondary core system will link western and southern Hanoi with the city centre and ring roads 1, 2 and 3 via a rail route.

The proposed 193km Umrt network is composed of four lines, comprising urban rail and bus rapid transit.

When the four Umrt lines are completed the system will be able to serve 2.6 million passengers per day with an average trip length of 7.8 kilometres per passenger.

Excluding committed projects, the total investment cost in the transportation sector will be about $12.7 billion of which roads account for 54 per cent, public transport 43 per cent. Regional transport projects will cost $10.5 billion comprising expressways ($1.3 billion), roads ($1.4 billion), railways ($2.3 billion), airports ($3.3 billion) and inland waterway transportation ($0.2 billion).

How many bridges should be built across the Red River?
Haidep experts suggested that bridges across the Red River and Duong River would greatly affect the urban development pattern and traffic circulation in the city.

To meet traffic demand by 2020, 11 bridges will be needed. Among those eight are crossing Red River including the existing Chuong Duong, Long Bien and Thang Long and the new bridges of Thanh Tri, Vinh Tuy, Nhat Tan and two other bridges along the ring road. The remaining bridges will be built across the Duong River.

However, experts emphasised that these bridges must be carefully planned and designed because their location significantly affects urban development and traffic. Costs will stay high and the city’s landscape could be greatly altered.

As was experienced from the Chuong Duong bridge, constructing a bridge directly leading to the city centre encourages a lot of traffic passing through the city centre, causing serious traffic congestion.

Future orientation must be for vehicular traffic between the city centre and the Red River’s left bank to use the Nhat Tan and Vinh Tuy-Thanh Tri bridges via the ring roads to mitigate the negative impact to the heart of Hanoi.

Outstanding areas for development

The master plan has suggested special areas which need to be highlighted.

The Red River used to be the backbone of Hanoi, integrating the important areas and resources of the city. However, during development and with the occurrence of disasters the Red River no longer plays a key role in the socio-economic life of the city and is slowly losing its cultural and environmental importance. There are three main points aimed at this area: to revive the Red River as the cultural and environmental backbone of the city, to promote socio-economic development by reorganising the use of its ample space and to establish adequate institutional and technical frameworks.

The Thang Long-Co Loa Zone is a space which comprises Co Loa, Ho Tay and their surrounding areas together with the old quarter which form the heart of Hanoi.

It is necessary to ensure an open vista along the Thang Long-Co Loa axis by clearing existing facilities and restricting future developments, constructing transportation facilities and its adjacent areas, redeveloping the areas outside the dyke of the Red River and developing the Dong Hoi and Xuan Canh areas to match the development vision of the Thang Long-Co Loa zone.

The old quarter, also known as the 36 streets, risks losing its traditional cultural value because of the internal and external impacts of rapid urban development.

While economic activities are promoted on the street, community relations are rooted and strengthened inside residential blocks. To preserve and revitalise these values, improve living conditions and strengthen street identity there is a need for a common vision and sustainable development solutions.

Traditional values in the old quarter are not merely physical but are also intangible assets such as traditional commercial space, indigenous knowledge of craft and traditional businesses, social and family networks.

The West Lake waterfront area is expected to form one of the most important cultural and environment backbones of the city which is based on the water-greenery-culture concept.

In the past there were 16 villages around the lake but they have for the most part disappeared. West Lake should provide the people with better access to the lake, showcase revitalised traditional villages and stronger commercial value particularly in areas linked to public transportation.

The French quarter is located in the southern part of the city centre and bounded by Trang Thi and Trang Tien street in the north, Dai Co Viet and Tran Khat Chan streets in the south, the railway line in the west and Tran Quang Khai and Tran Khanh Du streets in the east.

When the nation was known as Tonkin during the French colonial period from the end of the 19th to the early 20th century, the quarter’s wide boulevards and tree canopied streets were developed. In addition to unique architectures, various parks and lakes have created a beautiful landscape and atmosphere.

The French quarter has been preserved largely due to its relatively sufficient infrastructure and unique charm. The future development of this area should not be physically oriented alone, but should lean more toward the strengthening of both its economic potential and its natural and cultural assets.


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